Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) International allow researchers to download censuses from various developing countries in the comparable format.
See Kugler and Fitch (2018) for detail.
See this page for the list of countries whose census is downloadable.
Bleakley (2006) uses censuses from Brazil, Columbia, and Mexico downloaded from this website.
Tarozzi (2011) uses the 2000 Mexico census downloaded from this website.