Various GIS data (location of villages, administrative boundaries, land use, elevation, road network, etc.) for Afghanistan is available for free from USGS. You can browse these data from ArcMap by following pages 16-17 in "Finding GIS Data and Preparing it for Use", an ArcMap Tutorial document by the Yale Map Collection.
Another source is the one compiled by ESOC (Empirical Studies Of Conflicts), which may or may not be the same as the USGS data. Road network, the location of airports and airbases, rivers and lakes, and administrative boundaries are available.