- See this post for detail.
National Geospatial-Intelligent Agency (NGA) GEOnet Names Server
- According to Strandow et al. (2011), this website "often contains more alternate spellings than Geonames." If you cannot find a location on GeoNames, therefore, try this server to find an alternate spelling, which you can search on GeoNames.
Global Gazetteer Version 2.3
- used by Huillery (2009) to geo-reference the localities where people interviewed by national household surveys in French West Africa live.
- Also used in the construction of the ACLED data (see "Creating a Conflict Manuscript by Clionadh Raleigh).
- It retrieves place names even if the spelling does not match perfectly. This is useful because English spellings of foreign place names rarely are standardized.
- Gleditsch and Weidmann (2012) recommends